Here is some basic terminology dealing with a cue and a pool table (see also: pool table terminology):
Here’s information on standard table and room dimensions for various standard size tables.
and here is some terminology related to a pool shot:
Here’s a good introduction to the game from Mike Page’s “Learn How to Play Pool in Ten Minutes” video:
And here’s a good demonstration of the 10 most important shot categories that must be learned to be a good pool player:
Here’s a concise rules summary for 8-ball and 9-ball (based on the WPA World Standardized Rules). Information on rules for different leagues, along with a video-based rules quiz, can be found here: pool rules resources.