First, here are some important definitions:
- legal shot: With a legal stroke and no foul, you must contact a legal OB and then something (CB or OB) must be driven to a cushion or be pocketed.
- legal stroke: a single hit of the cue tip on the CB with a forward stroking motion of the cue stick.
- foul: scratch, double hit, no foot on floor, ball driven off table, touching or interfering with balls, scoop, push, intentional miscue.
The following video provides a good overview of everything you need to know about how to identify, detect, and avoid fouls in pool. It is based on the World Pool-Billiard Association (WPA) World Standardized Rules (the “official rules of pool”), which are also recognized and used by the Billiard Congress of America (BCA) and many international tournaments and pool organizations.
Here is a concise rules summary for 8-ball and 9-ball, based on the official WPA rules. And here is a 1-page summary for 8-ball (PDF version, editable Word version), suitable for posting in a bar (created by Nathan Rhoades, Newport RI).
A good way to practice and test your understanding of how and when to call fouls is to take the Pool Rules Quiz.
Documented rules for different league systems can be found below. The rules deviate slightly from the official WPA rules, but not by much. A good summary of the differences can be found here:
Inexperienced players in bars who don’t know the official rules of pool often play under what are considered bar rules.
There are also many “unwritten rules” of pool etiquette, dealing with how to behave properly when playing, that one is expected to follow:
Here’s a useful 1-page handout summarizing the etiquette rules demonstrated in the video.
Pool Rules Documentation
- WPA World Standardized Rules for all games (the “official rules of pool”), and equipment specifications
- APA rules
- CSI, BCAPL, USAPL rules
- VNEA rules
- “No Conflict Rules” for racking and breaking in 8 ball, 9 ball, and 10 ball
- one-pocket rules
- “bonus ball” rules (a game played with nine balls involving a combination of snooker, 8-ball, one-pocket, and straight pool elements)
Other Useful Learning Resources
- online pool-rules quiz for testing and improving your knowledge of the rules (based on the WPA World Standardized Rules)
- fouls resource page (containing numerous examples and demonstrations of how to detect and avoid all sorts of illegal shots)
Should rules be changed to allow an anything-goes one-continuous stroke?
No. This would allow double hits, miscues, pushes, scoop jump shots (see the fouls resource page) an many other things that might not be desirable additions to the game. For more info and examples, see “Legal Fouls” (BD, Nov ‘ 16) and “A Modest Proposal” (BD, January, ’06).
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